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France Gallia

France Gallia


The Gauls were not constituted of a single territory, political or economic unit, before the Roman conquest, although they shared a common cultural substrate. Their main unifying link was commerce, although that did not prevent them from having frequent wars or skirmishes between the several Gallic towns.


It is the Gaul “on this side of the Alps” from the point of view of Rome. It corresponds to the Northern Italy, to the plain of the Po (crosses that it of the west to this) between the Alps and the Apennines, to the north of the Arno river and the Rubicón.




Colonized by diverse Gallic tribes (Celtics), the “Po” river acted as a natural border. The populations of the north border were organized in a very celtic fashion, and they even spoke their own language using the Latin only as a second language. However, the South border would change and were completely Romanized. But the conquest and Romanization of the Cisalpine Gauls will not be easy. While the Apennines delimited the western border of Italy, the northeast side was unprotected in front of the hostile Gallic towns. For this reason, Rome founded the Roman colony of the Seine Gálica (298 BC) and Latin of Arriminum _Rímini_ (268 BC) and Firmum (264 BC).

236 BC_Gauls of the north of the Po together with transalpine Gauls face Rome. In Rímini the Gauls and a part of the Boios Gauls were exterminated.

Lex Flaminia was adopted by Gaius Flaminius who proposed to allocate individual parcels of land to Roman citizens. 2

25 BC _Los boios and the ínsubros with the support of mercenary transalpine, gesetas, cross Etruria. They are only stopped in Telamón

222 BC _Rome defeated the Boii and after a bloody fight with the Insubres it takes Mediolanum (Milan). It creates the colonies of Cremona and Plasentia (Piazenza) with 6000 settlers each.

220 BC _Cayo Flaminio constructs the Flaminia Road to unite Rome and Rímini. During the invasion of Aníbal in 218 BC, the Gauls of the Po ally themselves with the Carthaginians who end up destroying Plasentia. Also, the Ligurian, people of Iberian roots, ally with the enemies of Rome and the next twenty years are continuously fighting.

191 BC _Publio Cornelius Scipio Nasica ends the resistance of the Boios and Gaul Cisalpina becomes a Roman territory. New roads are constructed that unite Bononia to Arretium and Plasentia to Arremine. And, throughout the following century, new and numerous colonies are founded completing the Romanization to the south of the Po.

The last proconsul of Gaul Cisalpina under the authority of the Senate is Dirty, that will be deposed and executed by Mark Anthony in 41 BC. After that date, the province is only mentioned as “Region Robed Gaul” within Italy.



It geographically occupies south-east of present France and the Mediterranean coast between the Pyrenees and Massalia (present Marseilles)


CAPITAL: Narbo Martius (present Narbona)



ARAB INVASION: 719 AD, rejected later

121 BC _Cneo Domitius Aenobarbo defeated the Gauls in Avennium Alóbroges (present Avignon) and the Gauls next to the Isara Arvernien river.

120 BC _Occupation of all the Transalpine Galia except Massilia (present Marseilles), allied city of Rome, which assures the passage the Roman armies towards Hispania.

118 BC _Gaul is annexed as a new Roman province of Gaul and receives the name of Narbonense and based on Narbo Martius (currently Narbona) becomes the capital.

49 BC 125 BC-59 BC _Annexation of Massilia (present Marseilles).

Transalpine Gaul owes its first name because of its geographical location on “the other side of the Alps” from the point of view of Rome.  Inhabited by Celtics (Gauls) and Iberians in the coastal zone, its economy depends largely on cereals. Mediterranean crops consisted largely of olives and vegetables, a good metallurgical industry and trade.  It is the natural route of communication between the north of Italy and the Hispania Tarraconense by earth or sea. Massilia (Marseilles), city of Greek foundation (approx 600 BC), dominates a very extensive territory that includes other populations non-autonomous people dependent on the capital. The Roman Empire considers it a separate city but instead of fighting against her, it even grants it more land and privileges. In this fashion there is a strong Romanization and a slow but effective integration of Massilia and its dominions in the Roman economic structure of the Transalpine Galia.

In order to facilitate and to assure communications, Rome constructs in this area the Domitia road. From her part towards the north another route is built, crossing the valley of the Rhine, communicates with Lugdunum (present Lyons), a major trading post, and the Germanic limes of the Rhine. In 1st century AD the imperial fleet maintains a naval base in Forum Iulium (present Frejus) to protect on the one hand the marine traffic between Ostia, the port of Rome, and Tarraco in Hispania. And secondly because the passage by land to the Germanic border along the Alps during the winter were not operational due to the snow. All this gives rise to an intense Romanization that from 59 BC reinforces Julius Caesar.



Is named after its inhabitants who have very long hair.  Gaul Comat is a large territory that includes the current France (with the exception of the south-east which is Gaul Transalpine), Belgium, Luxembourg and parts of Holland and Switzerland.




DISSOLUTION (Power is handed over to the Franks):

486 At first the Romans include the Comata Gaul in the GailianTransalpine and thus it is dominated by Julius Caesar in his commentaries on the war of the Gaul (“Oh Gaul the Beautiful”).  They are level lands, with great forests and good land for cultivating irrigated by big rivers. Their inhabitants, Celtics (Gallic) are generally big and strong, red-haired or blonde and with clear eyes. They either live on agricultural land with cattle ranches in villages and cities or they dedicate themselves to trading. They make and drink beer, something that Rome considers as a “foreign custom”. They are not militant but they defend their king and land and are excellent soldiers. Little is known about their religion and their priests, Druidas. The Roman Empire considers the Gauls as a very advanced civilization and they admire their commercial networks.

58 BC _Julius Caesar is named Procónsul of the Gaul of the south (Galia Narbonense and Galia Cisalpina) that uses as it bases to conquer the Galia Comata

58-52 BC_Campaigns of Julius Caesar in the Gauls

56 BC_As triumphant, Julius Caesar receives Gaul, Pompey, Hispania,Craso and Syria

56-49 BC_Julius Caesar independently administers the legal Gauls of the Roman Senate

52 BC_ Comata Gaul becomes a Roman province

50 BC_Julius Cèsar writes the commentaries on the war of the Gauls: “Oh Beautiful Gaul”

49 BC_Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicón and begins the Roman civil war

49 BC_The naval war of Massilia (Marseilles) in which Tenth Gross one, in favor of Caesar, defeats Aenobarbo, partisan of Pompey. In the same year a siege takes place and the site of the city Aenobarbo is finally rendered to Trebonio Key, partisan of Caesar. The campaigns of Julius Caesar in the Gauls begin in year 58 BC. The eduos Gauls ask for help against the invading Germanic people, Swabians (led by Ariovistus) and their marcomano allies and, later, harudes. In a year Caesar defeats Ariovistus and, on the other, the Helvetic Celts so they can cross the Jura. Defeat also to the secuanos Gauls and conquers the central zone of the Gauls. The following year he wins against the Carnutes and turns its territory into a Roman protectorate. He faces the coalition of Celtic Belgians in the north and defeats the Suasons and Belgian never centers. In 56 BC he defeats the Veneti Gauls in the naval battle of the Gulf of Morbihan and in both following years it realises several campaigns in Britania and Germania. Also in the north it must face the eburones commanded by Ambiorix. During 53 and 52 BC, rebellions of the Galia and the rise of Vercingetorix take place in center, head of the arvernios, who will surrender finally after the siege of Alessia. The conquest and pacification of the Gauls that realises Julius Caesareven include the crushing of several Germanic or Gallic towns and the genocide in the case of the Belgian nerve centers that disintegrate into independent towns. In the year 49 BC, surrenders Massilia (Marseilles), Caesar grants the Latin right and therefore the assigned autonomy to all the territories and populations to the city, but also he exerts a strong repression against the friendly tribes. The Romanization of the Gauls intensifies with the creation of colonies and municipalities. Augustus organizes the conquests of its uncle grandfather Julius Caesarin the Gaul that, in 27 BC, divides it in four provinces: Galia Narbonense, from the Alps to the Cévennes (Mediterranean coast, Languedoc, Win and the Delfinado) Galia Lugdunense, between the rivers Loira, Saona and the Seine Galia Aquitaine, enters the Pyrenees the south and the Loira river to the north Galia Belgian, between the Seine and the Rhine and limited on the north by the North Sea This division will already stay until the reform of Diocleciano at the IV century AD.


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